Monday, 24 October 2016

History of India

  • James Mill (1773–1836), in his The History of British India (1817), distinguished three phases in the history of India, namely Hindu, Muslim and British civilisations.
  •  This periodisation has been influential, but has also been criticised for the misconceptions it gave rise to. 
  • Another influential periodisation is the division into "ancient, classical, medieval and modern periods", although this periodisation has also been criticised.
  • Romila Thapar notes that the division into Hindu-Muslim-British periods of Indian history gives too much weight to "ruling dynasties and foreign invasions", neglecting the social-economic history which often showed a strong continuity.
  • The division into Ancient-Medieval-Modern periods overlooks the fact that the Muslim conquests occurred gradually during which time many things came and went off, while the south was never completely conquered.
  • According to Thapar, a periodisation could also be based on "significant social and economic changes", which are not strictly related to a change of ruling powers.

Wednesday, 19 October 2016

Random and Funny Facts

  1. Banging your head against a wall burns 150 calories an hour.
  2. In the UK, it is illegal to eat mince pies on Christmas Day!
  3. Pteronophobia is the fear of being tickled by feathers!
  4. When hippos are upset, their sweat turns red.
  5. A flock of crows is known as a murder.
  6. “Facebook Addiction Disorder” is a mental disorder identified by Psychologists.
  7. The average woman uses her height in lipstick every 5 years.
  8. 29th May is officially “Put a Pillow on Your Fridge Day“.
  9. Cherophobia is the fear of fun.
  10. Human saliva has a boiling point three times that of regular water.
  11. If you lift a kangaroo’s tail off the ground it can’t hop.
  12. Hyphephilia are people who get aroused by touching fabrics.
  13. Billy goats urinate on their own heads to smell more attractive to females.
  14. The person who invented the Frisbee was cremated and made into frisbees after he died!
  15. During your lifetime, you will produce enough saliva to fill two swimming pools.
  16. If Pinokio says “My Noes Will Grow Now”, it would cause a paradox.
  17. Polar bears can eat as many as 86 penguins in a single sitting. (If they lived in the same place)
  18. King Henry VIII slept with a gigantic axe beside him.
  19. Bikinis and tampons invented by men.
  20. An eagle can kill a young deer and fly away with it.

Thursday, 13 October 2016

World Wide Web - History of Postage Stamps

World Wide Web
The World Wide Web was invented by the English computer scientist Timothy Berners-Lee in 1989. At the time, he was working at CERN, a particle physics laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland. Tim Berners-Lee came up with the idea, and created the software and tools needed for the Web. The first web page went online in 1991.
In 1989, the early internet was mostly a network of computers at colleges and laboratories. CERN was the largest internet node in Europe. Tim Berners-Lee wrote to his bosses about his idea for a large network of pages that would live on the internet. They supported his work, but they didn’t find commercial support at the time. Berners-Lee went ahead and built the tools for the web anyway, and had the main ones ready by the end of 1990.
  • Tim Berners-Lee posted the first web page on August 6, 1991. The address was, which now has a copy of the first web page, and information about the beginning of the World Wide Web.

  • It is important to know the difference between the World Wide Web and the internet. The internet is the network of computers that information travels between. The World Wide Web is made up of all the web pages that are stored on these computers. Many other types of information move on the internet.

  • Tim Berners-Lee was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II in 2004, and has received many other awards and honors for developing the World Wide Web.

  • Sir Tim Berners-Lee is currently the director of the World Wide Web Consortium, also known as the W3C. The W3C discusses changes to the way the Web operates, and sets standards for web programming languages and browser software.

  • The World Wide Web reached 1 billion websites in September, 2014.

Ball Point Pens - History of Ball Point Pens

Ball Point Pens
The first successful ball point pen was invented by a Hungarian editor in the 1930s named László Bíró, who was looking for a way to use fast-drying newspaper ink for handwriting. Although his invention was the first successful ball point pen designed, others had tried for several years to create a more convenient writing instrument.
László's brother György was a chemist, and helped him to develop an ink that would work perfectly with his new pen design. The brothers filed a patent for their invention of the ball point pen in 1938, just in time for use by British pilots in World War II.
  • The first patent granted for a ball point pen design was in 1888 to John J. Loud. His design was useful for marking leather but not for writing on paper and his patent eventually lapsed.
  • The ball point pen was invented to replace the fountain pen, and the earlier writing instruments still used by many, quills and ink pots. These older writing devices often smeared, smudged, and splattered. Ink pot spills were also a big problem, as ink stains almost anything it touches.
  • Marcel Bich purchased the patent for the ball point pen from the Bíró brothers in 1945. He later shortened his name to BIC, the famous pen company we know today.
  • Bic's redesign made ball point pens affordable to everyone.
  • Approximately 14 million Bic pens are sold every day around the world.
  • In some countries, ball point pens are still referred to as 'Biros'.

Spanish Numbers 1-100

0: cero (say-ro)1: uno(oo-no)2: dos(dose)3:tres(trace)4:cuatro(kwat-ro)5:cinco(sink-o)6:seis(saze)7:siete(see-yet-eh)8: ocho(och-o)9: nueve(new-eh-veh)10: diez(dee-ace)11: once(ohn-say)12: doce(dos-say)13: trece(treh-seh)14: catorce(ca-TOR-say)15: quince(KEEN-say)16: dieciséis(dee-AY-see-saze)17: diecisiete(dee-AY-see-see-AY-tay )18: dieciocho(dee-AY-see-och-o)19: diecinueve(dee-AY-see-new-EH-veh)20: veinte(Veh-een-tee)21: veintiuno(Veh-een-tee-oo-no)22: veintidós(Veh-een-tee-DOS)23: veintitrés(Veh-een-tee-TRACE)24: veinticuatro(Veh-een-tee-KWAT-ro)25: veinticinco(Veh-een-tee-SINK-o)26: veintiséis(Veh-een-tee-saze)27: veintisiete(Veh-een-tee-see-ay-tay)28: veintiocho(Veh-een-tee-OCH-o)29: veintinueve(Veh-een-tee-new-EH-veh)30:treinta(treh-een-tah)31: treinta y uno(treh-een-tah ee oo-no)32: treinta y dos(treh-een-tah ee DOS)33: treinta y tres(treh-een-tah ee tres)34: treinta y cuatro(treh-een-tah ee KWAT-ro)35: treinta y cinco(treh-een-tah ee SINK-o)36: treinta y seis(treh-een-tah ee saze)37: treinta y siete(treh-een-tah ee see-ay-tay)38: treinta y ocho(treh-een-tah ee OCH-o)39 treinta y nueve(treh-een-tah ee new-EH-veh)40 cuarenta(kwar-EN-tah)41 cuarenta y uno(kwar-EN-tah ee oo-no)42 cuarenta y dos(kwar-EN-tah ee DOS)43 cuarenta y tres(kwar-EN-tah ee tres)44 cuarenta y cuatro(kwar-EN-tah ee KWAT-ro)45 cuarenta y cinco(kwar-EN-tah ee SINK-o)46 cuarenta y seis(kwar-EN-tah ee saze)47 cuarenta y siete(kwar-EN-tah ee see-ay-tay)48 cuarenta y ocho(kwar-EN-tah ee OCH-o)49 cuarenta y nueve(kwar-EN-tah ee new-EH-veh)50 cincuenta(sink-KWEN-tah)51 cincuenta y uno(sink-KWEN-tah ee oo-no)52 cincuenta y dos(sink-KWEN-tah ee DOS)53 cincuenta y tres(sink-KWEN-tah ee tres)54 cincuenta y cuatro(sink-KWEN-tah ee KWAT-ro)55 cincuenta y cinco(sink-KWEN-tah ee SINK-o)56 cincuenta y seis(sink-KWEN-tah ee saze)57 cincuenta y siete(sink-KWEN-tah ee see-ay-tay)58 cincuenta y ocho(sink-KWEN-tah ee OCH-o)59 cincuenta y nueve(sink-KWEN-tah ee new-EH-veh)60 sesenta(seh-SEHN-tah)61 sesenta y uno(seh-SEHN-tah ee oo-no)62 sesenta y dos(seh-SEHN-tah ee DOS)63 sesenta y tres(seh-SEHN-tah ee tres)64 sesenta y cuatro(seh-SEHN-tah ee KWAT-ro)65 sesenta y cinco(seh-SEHN-tah ee SINK-o)66 sesenta y seis(seh-SEHN-tah ee saze)67 sesenta y siete(seh-SEHN-tah ee see-ay-tay)68 sesenta y ocho(seh-SEHN-tah ee OCH-o)69 sesenta y nueve(seh-SEHN-tah ee new-EH-veh)70 setenta(seh-TEHN-tah)71 setenta y uno(seh-TEHN-tah ee oo-no)72 setenta y dos(seh-TEHN-tah ee DOS)73 setenta y tres(seh-TEHN-tah ee tres)74 setenta y cuatro(seh-TEHN-tah ee KWAT-ro)75 setenta y cinco(seh-TEHN-tah ee SINK-o)76 setenta y seis(seh-TEHN-tah ee saze)77 setenta y siete(seh-TEHN-tah ee see-ay-tay)78 setenta y ocho(seh-TEHN-tah ee OCH-o)79 setenta y nueve(seh-TEHN-tah ee new-EH-veh)80 ochenta(och-EHN-tah)81 ochenta y uno(och-EHN-tah ee oo-no)82 ochenta y dos(och-EHN-tah ee DOS)83 ochenta y tres(och-EHN-tah ee tres)84 ochenta y cuatro(och-EHN-tah ee KWAT-ro)85 ochenta y cinco(och-EHN-tah ee SINK-o)86 ochenta y seis(och-EHN-tah ee saze)87 ochenta y siete(och-EHN-tah ee see-ay-tay)88 ochenta y ocho(och-EHN-tah ee OCH-o)89 ochenta y nueve(och-EHN-tah ee new-EH-veh)90 noventa(no-VEHN-tah)91 noventa y uno(no-VEHN-tah ee oo-no)92 noventa y dos(no-VEHN-tah ee DOS)93 noventa y tres(no-VEHN-tah ee tres)94 noventa y cuatro(no-VEHN-tah ee KWAT-ro)95 noventa y cinco(no-VEHN-tah ee SINK-o)96 noventa y seis(no-VEHN-tah ee saze)97 noventa y siete(no-VEHN-tah ee see-ay-tay)98 noventa y ocho(no-VEHN-tah ee OCH-o)99 noventa y nueve(no-VEHN-tah ee new-EH-veh)100 cien(see-EHN)

Wednesday, 12 October 2016

States and Capitals of India

Capital of India

IndiaNew Delhi

States and Capitals of India

1Andhra PradeshHyderabad (De jure - 2 June 2024) Amaravati (proposed)
2Arunachal PradeshItanagar
9Himachal PradeshShimla
10Jammu and KashmirSrinagar (summer), Jammu (winter)
14Madhya PradeshBhopal
24Tamil NaduChennai
27Uttar PradeshLucknow
29West BengalKolkata
S.noUnion TerritoriesCapital
1Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPort Blair
3Dadar and Nagar HaveliSilvassa
4Daman and DiuDaman

Tuesday, 11 October 2016

National Flowers by Country

CountryNational FlowerInteresting Information
Antigua & BarbudaDagger's Log (Agave Karatto Miller)The yellow colored flowers rise from the large rosette of the Agave plant.
ArgentinaCeibo (Erythrina Crista-galli)The flower was adopted on December 2, 1942.
ArmeniaNo National FlowerArmenia is the second most densely populated of the former Soviet Republics.
AustraliaGolden Wattle (Acacia Pycnantha)September 1 is National Wattle Day (Each of Australia's territories is also represented by an official flower).
AustriaEdelweiss (Leontopodium Alpinum)The star-like flowers are short living perennials.
AzerbaijanNot Chosen any Flower.Azerbaijan was one of the first to declare independence of the country.
BahamasYellow Elder or Yellow Cedar (Tecoma Stans)The flowers bloom in late summer/early fall.
BahrainNo National FlowerBahrain is considered part of eastern Arabia.
Balearic IslandsCarnation (Dianthus Caryophyllus)Carnations can be easily grown from cuttings.
BangladeshWater Lily (Nymehaea Nouchali)Bangladesh adopted the flower in 1971.
BarbadosPride of Barbados, also known as Dwarf Poinciana & Flower Fence (Poinciana Pulcherrima)More common varieties of the flower are those with a fiery red and yellow "sunset color".
BelarusFlax (Linum Usitatissimum)The flowers last only until the heat of the mid-day sun hits them.
BelgiumRed Poppy (Papaver Rhoeas)The flower is one of the easiest wildflowers to grow.
BelizeBlack Orchid (Trichoglottis Brachiata)Black Orchids acquired the name by virtue of their very dark intense color, which tends to be dark brown and maroon.
BermudaBlue-eyed Grass (Sisyrinchium Montanum)The Blue-eyed Grass is a member of the iris family.
BhutanBlue poppy (Meconopsis Betonicifolia)The flower is native to the rocky mountain slopes of Tibet.
BohemiaThyme (Thymus Vulgaris)The pale pink flowers bloom at the tips of the stems in summer.
BoliviaKantuta (Cantua Buxifolia)The tubular flowers come in wild form, magenta, bicolor and subtile (slightly bicolored) varieties.
BrazilCattleya Orchid (Cattleya Labiata)Cattleya orchids are commonly called "corsage orchids" as the blooms are frequently used in corsages due to their exceptional beauty and fragrance.
British ColumbiaDogwood Tree Flower (Cornus Nuttalli)The four-petaled white flowers bloom in spring.
BulgariaRose (Rosa)Roses are more fragrant on a sunny day.
CanadaMaple Leaf (Acer)Maple syrup is made from the sap of sugar maple trees.
Cayman IslandsWild Banana Orchid (Schomburgkia Thomsoniana)This orchid specie is found only in the Cayman Islands.
ChileCopihue/Chilean Bellflower (Lapageria Rosea)The Chilean Bellflower is best grown on a partially shady and sheltered wall.
ChinaPlum Blossom (Prunus Mei)Plum Blossoms are the earliest blooms of the year, indicating the start of spring.
ColombiaChristmas orchid (Cattleya Trianae)The Christmas orchid has a fetid smell.
Costa RicaGuaria Morada (Purple Orchid) (Cattleya Skinneri)The flower was adopted on June 15, 1939.
CroatiaIris Croatica (Hrvatska Perunika)It grows only in the northern and northwestern Croatia.
CubaButterfly Jasmine (Mariposa)The white Butterfly Jasmine is an endemic Jasmine specie.
CyprusRose (Rosa)The more fragrant the rose, the shorter it's vase life.
Czech RepublicRose (Rosa)Miniature roses were first developed in China.
DenmarkMarguerite Daisy (Argyranthemum Frutescens)Marguerites produce large, single, daisy-like flowers most of the summer.
EcuadorRose (Rosa)Named from the equator, which crosses the country.
EgyptLotus (Nymphaea Lotus)The pure white lotus flower, the only plant to fruit and flower simultaneously.
EstoniaCorn-flower or Bachelor's Button Centaurea (Cyanus)The flower was adopted on June 23, 1988.
EthiopiaCalla LilyThe flower is a solitary, showy, funnel shaped unfurling spathe.
FranceIris (Iris)Iris flowers have three petals often called the "standards", and three outer petal-like sepals called the "falls".
French PolynesiaThe Tiare (Gardenia Taitensis)The flower is especially symbolic of Tahiti. The Tiare Anei is the emblem of the isle of Vavau. The Tiare Apetahi is the emblem of Raiatea.
FinlandLily-of-the-Valley (Convallaria Majalis)The Lily of the Valley are mostly used in bridal arrangements because of their sweet perfume.
GermanyKnapweed (Centaurea Cyanus)In Germany, it is custom for an unmarried person to wear this flower in the buttonhole.
GreeceBear's Breech (Acanthus Mollis)The fresh or dried flower spikes are used in floral arrangements.
GreenlandWillow Herb (Epilobium)The name Willow-herb refers to the willow-like form of the leaves.
GuamPuti Tai Nobiu (Bougainvillea Spectabilis)The flowers of the bougainvillea can be of several different colors from pink to red, orange, white and yellow.
GuatemalaWhite Nun Orchid or Monja Blanca (Lycaste Skinnerialba)The flower is a rare flower in the Verapaz district of Guatemala symbolizing peace, beauty and art.
GuyanaWater Lily (Victoria Regia)The largest flowers can measure 10 inches to one foot in diameter
Holland(The Netherlands)Tulip (Tulipa)Tulip bulbs are a good substitute for onions in cooking.
HondurasOrchid (Brassavola Digbiana)The rose was the national flower of Honduras from 1946-1969.
Hong KongOrchid (Bauhinia Blakeana)The flower is Calyx tubular with a corolla of five petals colored in deep purple.
HungaryTulip (Tulipa)Tulip is the common name for between 50 and 150 species of the genus Tulipa in the lily family, Liliaceae.
IcelandMountain Avens (Dryas Octopetala)The flowers are produced on stalks of up to 10 cm long, with eight creamy-white petals.
IndiaLotus (Nelumbo Nucifera)The lotus is an aquatic perennial.
Indonesia1) Melati (Jasmine) (Jasminum Sambac) 2) Moon Orchid (Phalaenopsis Amabilis) 3) Rafflesia (Rafflesia Arnoldi Indonesia)Indonesia adopted the 3 flowers on June 5, 1990 to mark the World Environment Day
IranRed Rose (Rosa)To make a dark red rose appear blacker, its stem can be put in water that has black ink in it.
IraqRose (Rosa)The rose is said to be originally from Persia and was introduced to the west by Alexander.
IrelandShamrockShamrock is the common name for several unrelated herbaceous plants with trifoliate leaves.
IsraelNo National FlowerIsrael is located in the Middle East.
ItalyStylized LilyEven the Iris is said to be the Flower Emblem of France.
JamaicaLignum Vitae or Wood of Life (Guaiacum Sanctum)The flower is indigenous to Jamaica and was found by Christopher Columbus.
JapanChrysanthemum (Imperial), Cherry Blossom SakuraThe sakura trees are the subject of the annual National Cherry Blossom Festival in Japan
JordanBlack Iris (Iris Nigricans)The dark purple colored Iris has six petals, three which are drooping and three upright.
LaosChampa Flower(Calophyllum Inophyllum), also known as Plumeria.The attractive white flowers are scented and waxy.
KazakhstanLily(Lilium) serves as the Unofficial National Flower.Citizens are guaranteed free secondary education.
KuwaitRhanterum Epapposum, locally called Arfaj.Have more than 10% estimated oil reserves of the world with it.
KyrgyzstanShyrdak Symbols of Kyrgyzstan and also the Tulip.The Kyrgyz came under tsarist Russian rule during the 19th century.
LatviaOxeye Daisy, or Pipene (Leucanthemum Vulgare)The flower was earlier known as Chrysanthemum Leucanthemum
No National FlowerCedar of Lebanon is the National Tree of Lebanon.
LiberiaPepperThese are small, white, star-shaped flowers.
LibyaPomegranate blossomThe flowers are with fiery red blossoms.
LithuaniaRue or Herb of Grace (Ruta graveolens)The Rue's fragrance is strong, characteristically aromatic and sweet.
LuxembourgRose (Rosa)One of the most famous rose gardens was planted by Empress Josephine at the Chateau de la Malmaison in France on 1804.
MadagascarPoinciana (Delonix Regia)In early summer, the voluminous red blooms appear and hold for 4-8 weeks.
MaldivesPink Rose (Rosa)The oldest painting in the world depicts a five-petaled pink rose.
MaltaThe Maltese Centaury Paleocyanus CrasifoleusThe flower was adopted in the early 1970s
Republic of MoldovaNo Flower has been Designated.Moldova became the first former Soviet state to elect a Communist as its President in 2001.
New ZealandKowhaiKowhai or botanically known as Sophora Microphylla, is a beautiful yellow or golden flower.
ParaguayJasmine-of-the-ParaguayJasmine flowers are white in most species.
PeruKantuta, Inca magic flowerKantuta come in 4 varieties: wild form, Magenta, bicolor and Subtile.
PhilippinesSampaguita (Jasminum Sambac)The flower blooms full-year and have white, small, dainty, star-shaped blossoms, which open at night and wilt in less than a day.
PolandCorn Poppy (Papaver Rhoeas)Corn Poppy or Red Poppy is the wild poppy of agricultural cultivation.
PortugalLavenderUsed in cooking, the potency of the lavender flowers increase with drying.
Puerto RicoPuerto Rican Hibiscus, or Flor de Maga (Montezuma Speciossisima)The common garden Hibiscus is also known in some areas as the "Rose of Althea" or "Rose of Sharon".
Republic of MolossiaCommon Sagebrush (Artemisia Tridentata)Common Sagebrush is very drought tolerant and needs good drainage.
RomaniaDog Rose (Rosa Canina)The white or pink 5-petalled flowers are 4-6 cm across and come in clusters of 1-5.
RussiaCamomile (Matricaria Recutita)The flower has an aromatic, fruity and floral fragrance.
San MarinoCyclamen (Cyclamen)The flowers are produced in whorls of 3-10, with each flower on a slender stem 3-12 cm tall with five united petals.
ScotlandThistle (Cirsium Altissimum)The thistle flower is a favorite flower among butterflies.
SeychellesTropicbird OrchidThese are sprays of white flowers with long spurs like the tails of tropicbirds.
SicilyCarnation (Dianthus Caryophyllus)The carnation is native to Eurasia and has been cultivated for more than 20 centuries.
SingaporeVanda Miss Joaquim OrchidThe flower is a hybrid orchid between Vanda teres & Vanda hookeriana
SlovakiaRose (Rosa)The first historical reference of the rose is by the Sumerians from ancient Mesopotamia.
SloveniaCarnation (Dianthus Caryophyllus)Carnations can be propagated by planting young flowering shoots.
SpainRed carnationThe National Flower of Spain is the Red Carnation.
Sri LankaNil Mahanel Water Lily (Nympheae Stellata)The flower, a blue water lily, was adopted on Feb. 26, 1986.
S. AfricaProtea (Protea Cynaroides)The King protea is originally from the Cape Town area of South Africa.
S. KoreaRose of Sharon (Moogoonghwa) (Hibiscus Syriacus)Hibiscus Syriacus are pink-mauve single flowers having a dark magenta eye. The flower is not a rose, but its large exotic blossoms attract hummingbirds and tiny insects.
SwedenLinnea (Linnea Borealis)The flowers are pink, bell-like, very fragrant and grow in pairs.
SwitzerlandEdelweiss (Leontopodium Alpinum)The flowers are starfish-like white, wooly blooms.
SyriaJasmineJasmine flowers are generally white, although some species have yellow flowers.
TahitiTahitian Gardenia (Gardenia Taitensis)The flowers are fragrant and are good for cutting.
Taiwan(Republic of China)Plum blossom (Prunus Mei)Most plum blossoms have five petals and range in color from white to dark pink.
ThailandRatchaphruekThe color of the flower is shining yellow contrasting great importance.
Trinidad and TobagoChaconia (Warszewiczia Coccinea)The flower is also known as the Pride of Trinidad & Tobago or Wild Poinsettia
TongaRed-blossomed HeilalaThe Red-blossomed Heilala festival in Tonga is celebrated during the Heilala Festival every July 4.
TurkeyTulip (Tulipa)Tulips do not grow in the open or in tropical climates as they need cold winters to grow.
TurkmenistanNot yet selected any flower.Turkmenistan contains the fifth largest reserves of natural gas in the world.
UkraineSunflower (Helianthus Annuus)Most flower heads on a field of blooming sunflowers are turned towards the east, the direction of sun rise.
United States of AmericaRose (Rosa)The rose was officially adopted on November 20, 1986.
United Kingdom(England)Tudor Rose (Rosa)The Tudor Rose is a graphic design created by King Henry VII in 1485, with a red rose laid atop a white one.
United Kingdom (Wales)Leek (Babbingtons Leek), Daffodil (Narcissus Amaryllidaceae)The Leek and the Daffodil are both emblems of Wales. The national flower of Wales is usually considered to be the Daffodil. However, the Leek has even older associations as a traditional symbol of Wales - possibly because of its colors, white over green that echo the ancient Welsh flag.
UruguayCeibo Erythrina (Crista-Galli)Ceibo Erythrina are bright red flowers.
UzbekistanNot selected any flower.Being one of the most populous countries of Central Asia.
VenezuelaOrchidOrchids form the world's largest family of plants.
Virgin IslandsYellow Elder or Yellow Trumpet (Tecoma Stans)The yellow flowers have a very sweet fragrance and attract hummingbirds, butterflies and/or birds.
YemenArabian Coffee (Coffea Arabica)Individual coffee flowers are white, fragrant, with waxy, linear petals.
YugoslaviaLily of the Valley (Convallaria Majalis)Lily of the Valley are fragrant bell shaped flowers.
ZimbabweFlame Lily (Gloriosa Rothschildiana)The large, claw like flowers open yellow and red and then change to a rich claret edged with gold.

Friday, 7 October 2016

Indian History & Culture

01Alexander invaded India in326 BC
02The Mauryan Empire was established in322 BC
03The First Mughal Emperor of India wasBabur
04Taj Mahal was built byShahjahan
05Lala Lajpat Rai was also known asLion of Punjab
06Chandragupta II was also known asVikramaditya
07The city of Fatehpur Sikri was built byAkbar
08The Red Fort in Delhi was built byShahjahan
09Battle of Panipat was faught in1761 AD
10The first President of India wasDr.Rajendra Prasad
11"Swaraj is my birthright!" was said byBal Gangadhar Tilak
12The capital of Mysore during the rule of Tipu Sultan wasSrirangapatnam
13Battle of Plassey was fought in1757 AD
14The first Governor-General of Bengal under the East India Company wasWarren Hastings
15Ashoka was born in269 BC
16Permanent settlement in Bengal was introduced byLord Cornwallis
17The last Governor-General of India wasC.Raja Gopalachari
18The first session of the Indian National Congress was held atBombay (Mumbai)
19Quit India Movement started in the year1942 AD
20Sir Thomas Roe,English Ambassador, visited India during the reign ofJahangir
21In the battle of Plassey, Lord Clive defeatedSiraj-ud-Daula
22The city of Calcutta was founded in1690 AD
23The capital of king Vikramaditya's kingdom wasUjjain
24The first Viceroy of India wasLord Canning
25The name of the famous horse of Rana Pratap wasChetak
26The Grand Trunk road was built during the reign ofShersa Suri
27Tipu Sultan was born in1750 AD
28Home Rule Movement was started byAnnie Besant
29Shivaji was crowned in1664 AD
30East India Company was established in the year1600 AD
31The capital city of ancient India wasIndraprastha
32The first woman ruler in India wasRazia Begum
33The capital of the Mauryan wasPatliputra
34The construction of Qutb Minar in Delhi was completed byAla-ud-din
35Din-i-Ilahi was founded byAkbar
36Rabindranath tagore was born in1861 AD
37The most famous king of Vijayanagar Empire wasKrishnadevaraya
38Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan was also known asFrontier Gandhi
39Samudra Gupta is popularly known asNapolean of India
40The first Tamil hero who fought against the British wasVeerapandya Kattabomman
41Akbar's tomb is situated atSikandrabad
42Gautama Buddha was the son ofShuddhodan
43Shivaji's mother wasJeejabai
44Gandhiji's mother wasPuthali Bai
45The political teacher of shivaji wasDadoji Konddev
46Timur invaded India in the year1398 AD
47Mahmud Ghazni was the son ofSabaktageen
48The city of Ahmedabad was established byAhmed Shah I
49Rani padmini wasQueen of Rana Ratna simha,the king of Chittoor
50The real name of Babar wasZahiruddin Muhammed
51The meaning of the word "Babar" isTiger
52Vijayasthamba is located atChittoor Fort
53Timur was the ruler ofSamarkhand,Central Asia
54The Indian social reformer who fought for the abolition of Sati wasRajaram Mohan Roy
55The first British Governor General of free India wasLord Mountbatten
56Dadabhai Naoroji was associated with the theory of"Drain of Wealth"
57The kingdom of South India well known for its Naval power wasThe Cholas
58Aligarh Muslim University was founded bySir Syed Ahmed Khan
59The first Indian ruler who prohibited Sati wasAkbar
60The Mughal ruler who was to recruit Rajput nobles in his administration wasAkbar
61The reforms announced by the British 1909 are known asThe Morle-Minto Reforms
62The architect who designed the capital City of New Delhi wasE.L.Lutyens
63At the time of independence, the number of princely states in India were552
64The Indian Prime Minister known as "Man of Peace" wasLal Bahadur Shastri
65The Indian king who fought the last Anglo-Mysore War against the English wasTipu Sultan
66Kohinoor Diamond was taken away byNadir Shah
67The full name of Shahjehan wasKhurram Shihabuddin Mohammed Shahjehan
68The Bardoli satyagraha was started byMahatma Gandhi
69The founder of Arya Samaj wasSwamy Dayanand Saraswati
70The Governor General who abolished Sati wasLord William Bentinck
71Bihar was earlier known asMagadha
72Agra was earlier known asAkbarabad
73"Harsha Charit" was written byBanabatta
74Chandragupta Maurya spent the last days of his life atSravanabelagola
75Jalianwala Bagh Massacre took place atAmritsar
76Vijayanagar kingdom was situated on the banks of riverTungabhadra
77In 1498,the sea route to india was discovered byVasco-da-gama
78King Bhoja was from the which dynastyPratihara
79The period 1206 Ad to 1526 AD is known asThe Delhi Sultanate
80Agra city was founded bySikandar Lodhi
81Vijaynagar Empire was founded byHarihara and Bukka
82The Vijayanagar kings fought frequent wars with theBahamani Sultans
83The last king of the Vijayanagar empire wasRama Raya
84Shankaracharya was associated with which movementBhakti
85Ramanuja preached the philosophy ofVishishtadvaita
86The followers of Ramanuja are known asVaishnavas
87Kabir was the disciple ofRamanand
88The founder of Sikh religion wasGuru Nanak
89Babar defeated Ibrahim Lodhi in the year1526 AD
90Babar died in the year1530 AD
91Humayun was defeated bySher Shah Suri
92Humayun died at the age of48 years
93Akbar was crowned in the year1556 AD
94In the second battle of Panipat, Akbar defeatedHimu
95Akbar died in the year1605 Ad
96The original name of Nurjahan wasMehrunisa
97Jehangir was known for hisJustice
98Jehangir died in the year1627 AD
99Aurangzeb was the son ofShahjehan
100Aurangzeb died in the year1707 AD
101The first Guru of the sikhs wasGuru Nanak Dev
102The tenth Guru of the sikhs wasGuru Gobind Singh
103Amritsar was founded byGuru Ram Das
104The Golden Temple was built byGuru Arjan Dev
105The Akal Takht was built byGuru Hargobind
106Guru Gobind Singh was born in1666 AD
107The `Khalsa' at Anandpur Sahib was founded byGuru Gobind Singh
108Maharaja Ranjit Singh was born in1780 AD
109Bahadur Shah Zafar died in the year1862 AD
110Shivaji died at age of50 years
111In tne year 1798,who was appointed as the Governor-GeneralWellesley
112Wellesley started the policy ofSubsidiary Alliance
113Dalhousie became the Governor-General in1848 AD
114The first war of Indian Independence fought in 1857 is also known asThe Sepoy Mutiny
115The Lady ruler who participated in the 1857 Revolt wasRani Laxmi Bai of Jhansi
116The Indian Association was formed in 1876 atCalcutta
117The Indian National Congress was formed in1885 AD
118The Rowlatt Act was passed in the year1919 AD
119The Jalianwala Bagh Massacre took place in the year1919 AD
120The movement launched in 1920 is known asThe Non-Co-operation Movement
121The Simon Commission came to India in the year1928 AD
122Chandragupta Maurya was succeeded byBindusara
123Ashoka invaded Kalinga in the year261 BC
124Ashoka died in the year232 BC
125Ashoka ruled for a period of40 years
126The last king of Maurya dynasty wasBrihadratha
127Chandragupta was succeeded bySamudragupta
128The Iron Pillar near Qutb Minar was erected byChandragupta II
129Fahien, a Chinese traveller visited india during the reign ofChandragupta II
130Harshavardhana ascended the throne at the age of16 years
131Harshavardhana was defeated byPulakeshin II
132The Chinese traveller who visited India during the reign of Harshavardhana wasHieun Tsang
133Akbar was succeeded byJehangir
134Jehangir was succeeded byShahjehan
135In ancient times this river was called Shatadru. How do we know it now?Sutlej.
136In the Rigveda there is a reference to the "Dasharajna Yuddha". What does this refer to?It was a battle of 10 kings fought between Sudasa, a king of the Tritsu family on one side, and a confederacy of 10 tribes on the other. It was fought on the banks of the Parushni (Ravi). Sudasa defeated his enemies in this battle.
137Who was the ruler of the territory between the Jhelum and the Ravi when Alexander invaded India?Paurava or Porus as the Greeks called him.
138When Porus surrendered to Alexander, Alexander asked him how he wished to be treated. What was Porus' reply?"As one King would treat another". This was his famous reply that has become a classic. Hearing this Alexander not only reinstated Porus on the throne, but he also added territories towards the east and domains of many republican states to the existing kingdom of Porus (according to Plutarch).
139Who was Megasthenes?Megasthenes was the Greek ambassador to the Mauryan Court.
140Who sent Megasthenes as his ambassador to the Mauryan Court?Seleucus Nikator.
141Where did Seleucus Nikator rule?Babylon. He gradually extended his empire from the Mediterranean Sea to the Indus.
142Whom did Chandragupta Maurya defeat to establish his kingdom?The Nanda dynasty of Magadha.
143Who helped Chandragupta Maurya defeat the Nanda rulers?Kautilya also called Chanakya.
144Of which territories was Ashoka the Viceroy before he became the king?Taksha-Shila and Ujjain.
145"Beloved of the gods" and "of amiable appearance". Ashoka used these titles in his inscriptions. Can you give the original titles?"Devanampiya" and "Piyadassi" (Devanampriya and Priyadarshin).
146What was unique about the personal bodyguards of the Maurya rulers?They were women.
147Who was the last Maurya King?Brihadratha.
148Who overthrew Brihadratha?Pushyamitra, who was his Commander-in-chief.
149What was the name of the dynasty that succeeded Mauryan dynasty?The Shunga dynasty. (Pushyamitra founded this dynasty after he overthrew the Mauryan ruler)
150From which source have historians got some details of the overthrow of the Mauryan dynasty?Bana's Harshacharita written almost eight centuries after the event.

151The Allahabad Pillar inscription is the most authentic record about the reign of a famous Emperor. Identify that Emperor.Samudra Gupta
152The Hindu kingdom of Champa flourished outside the present boundaries of India. Where would the kingdom be located in today's context?Vietnam. During this period, the country was considered a great centre of Vedic education.
153What is Theravada in the context of Buddhism?It is a major form of Buddhism prevalent in Sri Lanka, Burma, Cambodia, Laos and Thailand.
154Where is Angkor Vat located?It is located in the ancient kingdom of Kambuja (modem Cambodia). It means Temple (Vat) of the city (Angkor).
155Who constructed Angkor Vat?Suryavarman II.
156To whom is Angkor Vat dedicated?Vishnu.
157Who wrote Uttara-Rama-Charitam?Bhavabhuti.
158What is the Gandhara art also known as?Indo-Greek. The Gandhara sculptures drew their inspiration from the Hellenic (Greek) art of Asia Minor.
159After whom have the rock-cut temples at Mahabalipuram in Tamil Nadu been named?The five Pandavas and Draupadi.
160To which dynasty did Gautamiputra Shatakarni belong?Shatavahanas.
161Who founded the Shatavahana dynasty?The founder of the family was Simuka but it was Shatakarni I who raised it to eminence.
162Who wrote the Buddha Charita?Ashvaghosha.
163To which dynasty did Kanishka belong?The Kushana dynasty
164On the banks of which river did Harappa lie?Ravi. Mohenjodaro was on the bank of the Sindhu
165Name the trading station of the Indus Valley Civilisation.Lothal.
166The 'Sapta Sindhu' was the area of the initial Aryan settlement. To what region did it refer?The land of the Sindhu (Indus) and its principal tributaries.
167Which is the crime that is most often mentioned in the
168What does the word 'Sangam' refer to in Tamil History?It is the literary assembly of Tamil scholars held at Madurai under the patronage of the Pandyan Kings.
169Which great Chola Emperor started the tradition of installing epigraphs with historical introductions?Rajaraja Chola.
170Nalanda and Vikramshila were very famous in ancient India. What was the reason for their fame?These were the centres where the famous Buddhist Universities flourished.
171What were Nalanda, Vikramshila in reality?Buddhist monasteries. They later took on the shape of universities.
172What does the term Bhagavata relate to?CC.
173Greek sources refer to him as Sandrocottus (Androcottus). How do we know him?Chandragupta Maurya.
174What does the term 'dwija' mean?'Dwija' describes those who wear the sacred thread after Upanayanam. Literally 'Dwija' means twice-born.
175What was the reason for the importance of Kaveripattanam during the Sangam period?It was among the chief ports of the Tamil countries that carried on trade with the Romans.
176What was the intoxicating drink that was consumed by the Rig Vedic Aryans during religious ceremonies?Soma.
177How do we better know "Sakyamuni" (Shakyamuni)?Buddha.
178Who was the twenty-fourth and the last Tirthankara of the Jains?Vardhamana Mahavira
179On the basis of the Dhamma that Ashoka propagated, what is "Shusrusha"?Shusrusha meant obedience to father, mother, teacher and men of high caste.
180What is the literal meaning of Mohenjodaro?Mound of the dead.
181What is a Stupa?It is a kind of tomb where the relics of Buddha or other Buddhist monks are kept.
182What were the four sights which Gautam saw, while being driven around the city?An old man, a sick man, a corpse and an ascetic.
183Who was the chief deity of the Sangam Period?Murugan (Karttikeya)
184Which Gupta ruler is also known as 'Kavi Raja'?Samudragupta.
185Samudragupta is represented on coins as playing a particular musical instrument. Which musical instrument is that?Veena.
186What is common to the following: Kumarasambhava, Ritusamhara, Raghuvamsham and Meghdootam?They are all works of Kalidasa.
187What was the name of Harsha's sister?Rajyashri
188What was the title assumed by Harsha when he ascended the throne?Shiladitya
189Whom did Harsha succeed?His elder brother, Rajyavardhana.
190Mahendra, the son of Ashoka, was sent as a Buddhist missionary to a particular kingdom. Identify the kingdom.Sri Lanka
191In ancient times, who were the foreigners who were called Yavanas?The Greeks. The word was derived from the Old Persian form of the word 'Yauna', signifying originally the Ionian Greeks, but later, all people of Greek nationality. In the medieval times it came to be used for all foreigners irrespective of their place of origin.
192What was Sumatra called as, in ancient times?Suvarnadvipa.
193Who systematised the rules of Sanskrit grammar
(4 Century BC) in the work Ashtadhyayi?
194One of the chief sources of revenue from villages mentioned in the Ashokan inscriptions is the "Bhaga". What is it?Bhaga: King's share of the produce of the soil, usually l/6th. The other source of revenue was the Bali. The Bali was the land tribute paid to the King.
195In the Mauryan times if someone were referring to the Karshapana, what would he be talking about?The Karshapana was a copper coin that was in use during the Mauryan times. Dharana was a Silver coin and the Kakani were smaller copper coins.
196Where is Gandhara art found?The ruins of Taksha-shila, in modern Pakistan and Afghanistan.
197What were the Jains originally called?Nirgrantha.
198In Jainism a small group of people were called Ganadharas. Who were they?The close disciples of Mahavira were called Ganadharas.
199For a while, Bhagavatism and Brahmanism were separate sects. How did the two merge into one?When Krishna, the main deity of Bhagavatism, began to be identified with Vishnu, the main deity of Brahmanism, the two sects merged into one.
200What is the importance of the Khyber and Bolan passes in Indian history?The land route between India and West Asia lies through these passes.
201Which city in ancient India was famous for its textile industry?Mathura
202What is Stridhana?It is the exclusive property of a married lady, something she often inherits from her mother.
203According to the Arthashastra the Senapati was an important member of the Mantri Parishad. What was his role?Commander-in-Chief of the army.
204Jyotisha is one of the Vedangas. What does it deal with?Astronomy and astrology
205Two popular assemblies used to control the affairs of the Vedic kingdoms. Name them.Sabha: - Body of the elders. Constituted of               Brahmins and rich patrons.
Samiti: - An assembly of common people.          Meant for the discharge of administration.
206Who or what are the 'Uttariya' and 'Antariya'?In ancient India, antariya (dhoti) a lower garment was worn by all common people. Uttariya was the garment that covered the upper part of the body. In addition to these the well-to-do people wore Prapata around the waist. Around the prapata, the rich wore Rasana, usually of gold. Ushneesha was used to cover the head and Stanapatta was worn to cover the breasts.
207Who built the rock-cut temples at Ellora?The Rashtrakuta king, Krishna I.
208In the context of Buddhism, what is Vinaya Pitaka?It is the work that deals with the governance of the life of Buddhists. It also describes the gradual development of the Sangha and the life and teachings of Buddha.
209What is contained in the Sutta Pitaka?Sutta Pitaka incorporates the greatest literary works of Buddhism. Of the five collections, the first four consist of discourses of Buddha.
210Patanjali's Mahabhashya refers to some of the stories about Krishna's early life. Who does Patanjali call Samkarshana?Balarama.
211With which modern township would you identify the ancient port of Suppara (also known as Surparaka)?Nala Sopara an extended suburb of modern Mumbai.
212What was the basis of barter for common articles during the Vedic period?Paddy.
213In which script were a majority of the Ashoka inscriptions written?Brahmi. Brahmi script was used in the whole of the country, except the northwest.
214What script did Ashoka use in the inscriptions of the Northwest of India?Kharoshti script.
215The Jaina texts were finally compiled in the sixth century A.D. in Vallabhi in Gujarat. In which language were they written?Prakrit.
216Who wrote the Arthashastra?Kautilya.
217Which is a very important source of information for the social, political and economic life of the people living in the Tamil Naidu area in the early Christian era?Sangam literature.
218Who is the author of the Greek work "Indika"?Megasthenes. This book, however, is not available to us in its entirety and survives only in quotations by subsequent classical writers.
219When did the Vikram Samvat begin in India?It began in 57 B.C.
220Over which part of present-day India did the Pala dynasty rule?Bengal.
221When did the Shaka era begin in India?78A.D.
222Who started the Shaka era?Kanishka of the Kushana dynasty.
223When did the Gupta era begin in India?In 320 A.D., after Chandragupta of the Gupta dynasty.
224Over which kingdom did Kharavela rule?Kalinga.
225According to Buddhist sources, a dreaded dacoit had a transformation of heart and took refuge in Buddha's Dhamma. Who was he?Angulimala.
226An accomplished and rich dancer gave away her mango-grove to the Sangha of Buddha and became his disciple. Name her.Amrapali.
227Why was the Indus Valley Civilisation originally called the Harappan Civilisation?It was so called because the first site of this civilization was discovered (in 1921) at the modern site of Harappa, in present day Pakistan.
228What was the basis of the town planning of the people of the Indus Valley Civilisation?It was the Grid System. In the format that they used all roads cut across each other almost at right angles. This led to the city being divided into blocks.
229What was the most important public place in Mohenjodaro?It was the Great Bath. It was probably used for ritual bathing.
230What religion did Kharavela patronise?Jainism.
231The Greeks called cotton "Sindon". There is a reason behind this name. What is it?The people of the Indus Valley Civilisation were the first to produce cotton and therefore the Greeks called it Sindon. This word is derived from the name Sindh.
232Karikala Chola founded a famous city. What was it?Puhar. Identified with Kaveripatnam the Chola capital.
233To which Age does the Indus Valley Civilisation belong?The Bronze Age. Iron was not known to them.
234What is the birthplace of Shankaracharya?Kaladi. Shankaracharya was a famous exponent of the Advaita philosophy. Advaita literally means not two. Advaita believes in an eternal being and holds that the plurality is nothing but illusion.
235How many books or Mandalas does the Rig Veda contain?Ten.
236Who introduced chariots drawn by horses into India?The Aryans
237Who was born to Siddhartha and Trishala in the year 540 B.C.?Vardhamana Mahavira
238According to the Arthashastra, the Purohita was an important member of the Mantri Parishad. What was his role?He was the High Priest.
239In ancient India handicraftsmen were organised into economic corporations or guilds. What were these Guilds called?Shreni.
240Who wrote Kadambari?Banabhatta.
241At what age did Mahavira abandon the world and become an ascetic?At the age of 30 yrs.
242Where and when did Mahavira pass away?In 468 B.C at Pavapuri, in modern Bihar.
243Jainism was divided into two sects. Name them.Shvetambara: - Those clad in white.
Digambara: - Those who are sky-clad (or are                      naked)
244Where was Buddha born?Buddha was born in the royal grove in Lumbini near Kapilavastu.
245Where did Buddha deliver his first sermon?At Sarnath.
246What was the path to be followed to be free from misery according to Buddha?He recommended following the eight-fold path, (ashtanga magga)
247Under whose rule did Magadha first attain prominence?Bimbisara. According to Ashwaghosha, Bimbisara belonged to the Haryanka dynasty.
248Who was the Royal Physician at Bimbisara's court?Jivaka.
249Which was the capital of the kingdom of Magadha before Pataliputra?Girivraja. Also called Rajagriha or Rajgir.
250Who succeeded Bimbisara to the throne of Magadha?Ajatashatru.
251Which dynasty succeeded the dynasty of Bimbisara?The Shishunagas. They conquered the kingdom of Avanti, and made it a part of the Magadhan empire.
252Where was Pataliputra situated?It was situated at the confluence of the Gandak, the Son, and the Ganga. It is present-day Patna.
253What were the reasons behind the refusal of the Greek soldiers to accompany Alexander beyond the Beas?They were war weary and home sick. The hot climate of India did not suit them. Having experienced the fighting abilities of the Indian people they were apprehensive about the power of the Nandas. All these reasons contributed to their refusal.
254What theme does Vishakhadatta's play, Mudrarakshasa, deal with?The strategies adopted by Chanakya against the enemies of Chandragupta Maurya.
255Which were the four divisions of the army in ancient India?Infantry, cavalry, elephants and chariots.
256Why did Ashoka exempt the village of Lumbini from 'Bali' (tribute paid to the king)?Because this was the birthplace of Gautama Buddha.
257Menander, also known as Milinda, was the most famous of the Indo-Greek kings. Where was his capital city?Sakala, modern Sialkot.
258Who was the Buddhist monk who converted Menander into Buddhism?Nagasena or Nagarjuna.
259What is the Milinda Panha?It is a book, which records the conversation between Nagarjuna and Menander. Milinda Panha literally means Questions by Milinda.
260Who issued the first long inscription in chaste
Rudradaman, the famous Shaka ruler.
261We know of two successive dynasties of the Kushanas. Who founded them?The first dynasty was founded by Kadphises I and the second by Kanishka.
262The Shakas and the Kushanas completely identified themselves with Indian culture. What factors helped them in this?They did not have a script of their own nor did they have any organised religion.
263What were the articles of clothing introduced in India by the Shakas and the Kushanas?Trousers, long coat, tunic and turban. The turban, however, is mentioned as a head dress in ancient India (Ushneesha)
264How were the foreign elements like Shaka, Pahlava and the Kushanas assimilated into Indian society?Since they came as conquerors they were classified as Kshatriyas.
265Buddhism was divided into two sects. What were they?Mahayana: - The Great wheel. Hinayana: - The Lesser wheel.
266Name the two Buddhist centres located in present day Andhra Pradesh?Nagarjunakonda and Amaravati.
267What was the contribution of the Greeks to Indian theatre techniques?The use of curtain was borrowed from the Greeks. The curtain was called "Yavanika".
268Over which areas did the Shatavahana dynasty rule?The Deccan and Central India.
269Over which area of India did Rashtrakutas rule?Northern Maharashtra.
270Who were Gandhikas?Artisans who are mentioned as giving donations to the Buddhists. Originally Gandhika meant perfumes but was later used to describe shopkeepers. The name Gandhi is said to have been derived from it.
271What was the Buddhist temple known as?Chaitya.
272What was a Buddhist monastery known as?Vihara.
273What were the main articles of trade of the Southern Kingdoms of the Cholas, the Cheras and the Pandyas?Spices especially pepper, ivory, pearls, muslin and silk.
274Name two of the epics of the Sangam Age.Silappadikaram, Jivakachintamani and Manimekalai.
275What was the Uttarapatha?It was the route that was used for trade. It ran from Taksha-shila to Broach on the Western coast.
276Which empire rose on the remains of the Kushan Empire?The Gupta Empire.
277Who were Lichchhavis? What are they known for?Lichchhavis ruled over a vast area from Magadha to Nepal. They were best known for the democracy they practised. It would not be correct to compare it with democracy as understood today. Some preferred to call it oligarchy.
278Who wrote 'Hitopadesha'?Narayana Bhatta. Hitopadesha is a collection of stories, most of which were drawn from the Panchatantram of Vishnu Sharma.
279Who is regarded as the first important King of the Gupta dynasty?Chandragupta I.
280Which Gupta ruler adopted the title 'Vikramaditya'?Chandragupta II. He is regarded as the greatest of the Gupta rulers (376 to 414 AD).
281Who was the Chinese pilgrim who visited India during the time of Chandragupta II?Fa-Hien.
282Who was the first Gupta king to assume the title 'Rajadhiraja"?Chandragupta I. In addition to 'Rajadhiraja', Samudragupta assumed the titles 'Parambhattaraka' and 'Paramabhagavata'.
283What was the image on the royal seal of the Guptas?Garuda.
284Who was the author of the play 'Mrichchhakatikam'?Shudraka.
285Which empire rose on the ruins of the empire of the Pallavas of Kanchi?The Chola Empire.
286A ruling dynasty at Thanesar, (in modern Haryana), extended its authority over the feudatories of the Gupta Empire. Who was the ruler who achieved this?Harsha.
287Which city did Harsha make his capital?Kanauj.
288Who was the Chinese pilgrim who visited India during the time of Harsha?Hiuen Tsang.
289Who was the ruler of South India who prevented Harsha from extending his kingdom southwards?The Chalukya King Pulakesin II.
290What religion did Harsha follow during his early
He was a devotee of Shiva.
291Which religious sect did Harsha patronise in his later
The Buddhist.
292What are the Vedangas?The limbs of the Vedas. It was necessary to learn the Vedanga to understand the Vedas. The Vedangas were :
a) Shiksha (phonetics)
b) Kalpa (rituals)
c) Vyakarana
d) Nirukta (etymology)
e) Chhanda (metrics)
f) Jyotisha (astronomy)
293Who was reputed to be the author of the following books: Priyadarshika, Ratnavali and Nagananda?Harsha.
294In which book would you find the famous Gayatri mantra?Rigveda.
295In the Rigveda, a daughter is sometimes referred to as 'duhitr'. What is the literal translation of the word?One who milks the cow.
296Who was the first person to hold that the earth was a sphere and rotated on its axis?Aryabhata. He also declared that the eclipses were not the work of Rahu but were caused by the shadow of the earth falling on the moon. Varahamihira and Brahmagupta later astronomers did not agree with his view. Aryabhata also gave an accurate approximation
297What is the 'Dharmachakrapravartana'?The preaching of the first sermon by Buddha.
298Who was responsible for establishing the order of nuns in Buddhism?Ananda, the personal attendant of Buddha, was largely responsible for the admission of Gautami (the widowed stepmother of Buddha) into the Sangha. This was the beginning of the order of nuns.
299Who deciphered the Asokan inscriptions?James Prinsep.
300The word 'Aryan' originates from the Sanskrit word 'Arya'. What was the meaning of the word?Of good family.